[Terminology] Liquid crystal
Also known as mesogenic. One of phases of substance.
Liquid crystal phase is a mesophase. Between highly ordered crystalline phase and completely disordered liquid phase is mesophase.
Liquid crystal has properties of both crystal and fluid, such as: highly ordered in a certain direction.
Typically, liquid crystal includes lyotropic liquid crystal and thermotropic liquid crystal.
Lyotropic liquid crystal is solvent system; thermotropic liquid crystal is non-solvent system.
Lyotropic liquid crystal system depends on the interaction between solute and solvent; thermotropic liquid crystal system depends on temperature of system.
surfactant can form a liquid crystal phase.
Typically, surfactant solution forms lyotropic liquid crystal. Natural fatty acid soap can form thermotropic liquid crystal.