Sulfated Castor Oil
Time: 2012-09-26 16:00:53
Sulfated Castor Oil
Synonyms
Turkey Red Oil;
Castor Oil Sulfonic;
Turkey Red Oil Sodium Salt;
Castor Oil Sulfated;
Sulforicinolate Sodium Salt;
Castor Oil Sulfated Sodium Salt;
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Ester-based Sulfate
>> Ester-based Natural Products Sulfate
>> Vegetable Oil and Fat Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN: 8002-33-3
EINECS: 232-306-7
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: N/A
Molecular Weight: N/A
Structure
Schematic formula (one of major products):
Properties
Appearance    (1), yellow to brown oily viscous liquid; (2), solid.
Solubility    soluble in water.
Stability    stable in weak alkali, weak acid and hard water; unstable in strong acid.
Risk    Solid form: flammable material; irritation, irritation to skin, eye, respiratory. Harmful products of combustion are CO, CO2 and so on. Contact with strong oxidants, can cause to burn.
GHS (Rev.6) label:  
Liquid form: irritation, irritation to skin, eye.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent wetting, permeating, emulsifying, dispersing, solubilizing abilities. Low foaming. Resistant to hard water. Can form stable emulsion with water. Compared with the soap base, stronger resistance to acid.
Note    (1), Avoid using in children cleaning products, such as shower gels, shampoo, skin care products.
Synthesis
Sulfated castor oil is the first synthetic surfactant which can be used in hard water.
Previously, alizarin was used to stain turkey red, sulfated castor oil was a necessary mordant, also known as turkey red oil.
Sulfation reaction of castor oil is a complex reaction process. Sulfuric acid can react with hydroxyl groups of castor oil, also can react with C=C double bond; in addition, the process of reaction, also accompanies by the hydrolysis of castor oil. Therefore, the product of sulfated castor oil is a complex mixture, wherein ricinoleic acid sulfate sodium salt is one of the main products.
Usually the reaction process as follows:
(1), 100 parts castor oil is added to the kettle, drip 25 parts concentrated sulfuric acid at 30 - 35°C (no more than 35°C), finish within 4 - 6h, continue to stir 2 - 4h.
(2), At 40 - 50°C, clean with equal amount of warm water, remove excess sulfuric acid, stand, remove water. Continue to clean with 10 parts sodium chloride solution (6%, wt), stand, remove water. The reaction products are soluble in water, but not soluble in dilute acid and sodium chloride solution.
(3), Neutralize by 10 - 15% NaOH solution, and when the reaction liquid transforms from emulsion to clarification, stop adding alkali, the expected product is obtained.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
Liquid
Actives, %, ≥
50.0 - 60.0
pH (25°C, 1% solution)
7.0 - 9.5
Density, 25°C, g/mL, approx
1.06
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(3), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
Solid
Liquid
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications
Widely use as wetting agent, permeating agent.
Widely use as emulsifying agent.
2. Personal care products
Use as emulsifier, cleansing agent, humectant.
3. Textile
Use as emulsifier, wetting agent, cleansing agent.
Such as: use as cotton auxiliary agents (emulsifier, cleaning agent), remove oil and wax; use as softening agent, can improve the feel of cotton fabrics, increase the gloss.
4. Printing and dyeing
Use as emulsifier, wetting agent.
Such as: use as dye sizing auxiliary agent, can be conducive to dissolution of dyes in the printing paste, promote uniformity of coloration, improve permeability and fastness of dyes. Can also be used as antifoaming agent.
5. Leather
Use as emulsifier, wetting agent, fat-liquoring agent.
For example: use as light leather fat-liquoring agent in chrome tanning, can evenly penetrate the leather, make the leather soft and plump.
6. Metal processing agents
Use as emulsifier. Such as: metalworking fluids, steel wire drawing lubricants.
7. Pesticide
Use as emulsifier.
Manufacturers
 
Update: 20131018(1); 20160902(2);