Sodium Dodecylpoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate
Time: 2012-09-26 16:03:55
Sodium Dodecylpoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate
Synonyms
Sodium Laureth Sulfate;
Sodium Lauryl Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate;
Sodium Dodecyl Poly(Oxyethylene) Sulfate;
Polyethylene Glycol Sulfate Monododecyl Ether Sodium Salt;
SLES;
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Alcohol Polyether Sulfate
>> Alcohol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
>> Linear Alkanol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN9004-82-4
EINECSN/A
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: N/A; (C2H4O)n.C12H26O4S.Na (SciFinder Hill Rules)
Molecular Weight: N/A
Structure
 
Properties
Appearance    (1), paste; (2), liquid; (3), solid..
Odor    faint characteristic odor.
Solubility    soluble in water. The solubility increases with the increase of EO number.
Stability    stable in alkali, weak acid and hard water; unstable in strong acid, easily hydrolyzes.
Risk    Liquid (or paste) form: irritation, irritation to skin, eye. Irritation of sodium laureth sulfate is lower than sodium dodecyl sulfate. Under the same hydrophobic base, with the increase of EO number, toxicity and irritation decrease, in general, the EO number is greater than 5, the decline is significantly smaller, tends to flat. Under the same hydrophobic base and EO number, toxicity and irritation of magnesium salt are much lower than the sodium salt.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Animal Toxicity
Table 1 Animal toxicity values
rat oral LD50
1600mg/kg[1]
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent cleansing, foaming, emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, solubilizing, foam stabilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water. Performance is affected by EO number, such as: with the increase of EO number, cleansing capability decreases, solubilization capacity increases. Easily thicken, can provides good viscosity.
Note    (1), Products that has low content of 1,4-dioxane can be used in children cleaning products. Based on irritating judgment, usage should not exceed to 10%. In no tears formula of children shampoo, may be difficult to use as a primary surfactant.
(2), 1,4-dioxane generated during preparation: probable carcinogen. However, can be acceptable when concentration of 1,4-dioxane is less than 30ppm or less.
Synthesis
Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.
1. Synthesis of polyether
Obtain by polymerization reaction of lauryl alcohol and ethylene oxide.
For further information, see:
US patent 4,223,163 Process for making ethoxylated fatty alcohols with narrow polyethoxy chain distribution; US patent 4,967,017 Alcohol ethoxylates of reduced EO content or residual PO content; US patent 5,069,817 Process for making polyoxyethylene surfactants with desirable low temperature behavior, etc.
2. Synthesis of sulfate
Lauryl alcohol polyoxyethylene ether and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then sodium hydroxide neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and polyethers or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Actives, %, ≥
55.0 - 72.0
25.0
Unsulfated materials, %, ≤
2.50
0.45 - 1.0
Ethanol insoluble materials, %, ≤
0.25
/
NaCl, %, ≤
0.5
0.03 - 0.8
Na2SO4, %, ≤
1.0
0.16 - 0.8
pH (25°C, 10% solution)
6.5 - 9.5
6.5 - 9.5
Density, g/mL, approx
1.04
1.03
Color*, %T at 420 nm, ≥
90
80 / 92.0 - 97.0
Color*, Klett, 5% solution, ≤
30
/
1,4-Dioxane, ppm, ≤
30
30
*: Choose one of the two.
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), Unsulfated materials
GB/T 11989 Anionic surface active agents - Determination of soluble matter content in light petroleum
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(3), Ethanol insoluble materials
GB/T 13173 Surface active agents - Detergents - Testing methods
(4), NaCl
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(5), Na2SO4
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(6), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(7), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
(8), Color (%T at 420 nm)
Measure by spectrophotometer.
(9), Color (Klett)
GB/T 8447 Industrial linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, Appendix A
(10), 1,4-Dioxane
GB/T 26388 Determination of dioxane residues in surfactants - Gas chromatographic method
ISO 17280 Surface active agents -- Determination of 1,4-dioxan residues in surfactants obtained from epoxyethane by gas chromatography
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Used in cosmetics, should be test for harmful substances; or furtherly test for microorganisms.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications
Use as cleansing agent.
Use as emulsifying agent, dispersing agent.
Use as foam stabilizing agent, foaming agent.
Use as solubilizing agent.
2. Personal care products
Cleansing agent, foaming agent, emulsifying agent in personal care products.
For example, main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoo, hand sanitizer and other products.
Can provides good viscosity, foam and skin compatibility.
The products that contact with the skin for a long time, not recommended to use.
(1), Skin refining composition (US 6,565,838)
Body:
Sodium lauryl ether    35
Amphoteric detergent    4
Cocoamidopropylbetaine    7
Sub-micron emulsion    3
Decyl polyglucoside    7
Fragrance solubilizer    2
Sucrose cocoate    4
Fragrance    2
Cocoamide monoethanolamine    2
Preservative    1
Color    qs
Deionized water    qs 100
Facial:
Sodium lauryl ether    18
Amphoteric detergent    4
Cocoamidopropylbetaine    3
Sub-micron emulsion    4
Decyl polyglucoside    3
Fragrance solubilizer    2
Sucrose cocoate    4
Fragrance    2
Cocoamide monoethanolamine    2
Preservative    1
Color    qs
Deionized water    qs 100
(2), Bath liquid (US 5,683,683)
Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (2 moles EO) (30%)    12
Cocamide MEA    5.5
Stearamidopropyl Phosphatidyl PG-Dimonium Chloride (41.5%)    0.2
Glycol Stearate    0.75
Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine (48%)    1.7
Stearamide MEA    2.0
PEG 150 Distearate    0.05
Citric Acid    0.15
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (30%)    3.3
Castor Oil    0.5
Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride    0.3
Preservatives    0.5
Tetrasodium Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (39%)    0.08
Sodium Chloride    0.01
Fragrance    q.s.
Water    q.s. 100
(3), Conditioning shampoo (US 5,456,863)
Dimethyl Stearamidopropyl[(2-Pyrrolidonyl)methyl]ammonium Chloride    0.5
Glycerin    1.25
Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose    0.7
Dimethicone    3.25
Magnesium Lauryl Sulfate (30%)    5.35
Cocamide DEA    4.0
Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (40%)    7.5
Deionized Water    q.s. 100
Other formulations of this patent may also be found in “Ammonium Dodecyl Ammonium Sulfate”.
Patents similar to this patent include: United States Patent 5,358,667 Conditioning shampoo composition and method of preparing and using the same; United States Patent 5,275,761 Conditioning shampoo composition and method of preparing and using the same, etc.
(4), Clear soap bar (US 6,362,145)
A:
Propylene Glycol    200g
Myristic Acid    60g
Water    27g
Sorbitol (70%)    150g
Glycerin    135g
Stearic Acid    130g
SLES (60%, w/EtOH)    175g
Preparation Process: Operate the stirrer on high and heat the flask to 59.degree. C. When the acids are molten, begin a very slow/dropwise addition of 60 grams of sodium hydroxide (50%), to control the exotherm during saponification at or below 70.degree. C. Mix well at this temperature until homogeneous (approximately 30 minutes), then add 50 grams of SCI 85 powder and stir approximately 30 minutes until mixture is clear at 70.degree. C. Add 10 grams of TEA and stir 60 minutes. Turn off stirrer and let air rise to the top of flask (about 30 minutes), then pour into bar molds at 70.degree. C. Allow bars to cool undisturbed. When cooled, remove the bars from molds and wrap. The resulting cooled bars were not clear but also were not 100% opaque.
3. Household detergents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in laundry detergent, hard surface detergent (for example: glass detergent) and other household products.
Particularly, suitable for the preparation of high bubble and light-duty detergents.
4. Food-related industries
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in dishwashing detergent, fruit and vegetable cleaning agent and other products.
5. Industrial cleaning agents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in car cleaning products, metal cleaning products and other industrial cleaning products.
Particularly, suitable for the preparation of high bubble detergents, for example:car cleaning agents.
Relevant content can also refer to: United States Patent 6,350,725 Composition and method for road-film removal, etc.
6. Emulsion polymerization
Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization.
Usually used in vinyl chloride, styrene-butadiene emulsion polymerization; also used in the manufacture of styrene acrylic acid, acrylic acid, vinyl acetate homopolymer/copolymer emulsion.
7. Textile, leather
Use as emulsifier, foaming agent, cleansing agent, solubilizing agent.
8. Pets
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoos and other pet products.
Product members
Sodium Laureth-1 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-2 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-2.5 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-3 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-4 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-5 Sulfate
Sodium Laureth-7 Sulfate
Manufacturers
 
References
[1]: ChemIDplus. Sodium Dodecylpoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate, 9004-82-4
Update: 20131018(1); 20161122(2);