Ammonium Dodecylpoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate
Time: 2012-09-26 16:07:13
Ammonium Dodecylpoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate
Synonyms
Ammonium Laureth Sulfate;
Ammonium Lauryl Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate;
Ammonium Dodecyl Poly(Oxyethylene) Sulfate;
Polyethylene Glycol Sulfate Monododecyl Ether Ammonium Salt;
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-sulfo-omega-hydroxy-, C12-alkyl ethers, Ammonium salts;
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Alcohol Polyether Sulfate
>> Alcohol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
>> Linear Alkanol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN32612-48-9
EINECSN/A
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: N/A; (C2H4O)n.C12H26O4S.H3N (SciFinder Hill Rules)
Molecular Weight: N/A
Structure
 
Properties
Appearance    (1), paste; (2), liquid; (3), solid..
Odor    faint characteristic odor.
Solubility    soluble in water. The solubility increases with the increase of EO number.
Stability    stable in weak acid and hard water; unstable in alkali, strong acid.
Risk    Liquid (or paste) form: irritation, low irritation to skin, eye. Under the same hydrophobic base, with the increase of EO number, toxicity and irritation decrease, in general, the EO number is greater than 5, the decline is significantly smaller, tends to flat. Irritation is lower than ammonium lauryl sulfate.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Animal Toxicity
Table 1 Animal toxicity values
rat oral LD50
630mg/kg[1]
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent cleansing, foaming, emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, solubilizing, foam stabilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water. Performance is affected by EO number, such as: with the increase of EO number, cleansing capability decreases, solubilization capacity increases. Easily thicken, can provides good viscosity. Particularly suitable for weakly acidic formula.
Note    (1), Products that has low content of 1,4-dioxane can be used in children cleaning products. Based on irritating judgment, usage should not exceed to 10%. In no tears formula of children shampoo, may be difficult to use as a primary surfactant.
(2), 1,4-dioxane generated during preparation: probable carcinogen. However, can be acceptable when concentration of 1,4-dioxane is less than 30ppm or less.
Synthesis
Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.
1. Synthesis of polyether
Obtain by polymerization reaction of lauryl alcohol and ethylene oxide.
For further information, see:
US patent 4,223,163 Process for making ethoxylated fatty alcohols with narrow polyethoxy chain distribution; US patent 4,967,017 Alcohol ethoxylates of reduced EO content or residual PO content; US patent 5,069,817 Process for making polyoxyethylene surfactants with desirable low temperature behavior, etc.
2. Synthesis of sulfate
Lauryl alcohol polyoxyethylene ether and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then ammonia water neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and polyethers or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Actives, %, ≥
55.0 - 72.0
25.0 - 30.0
Unsulfated materials, %, ≤
2.50
0.3 - 1.0
Ethanol insoluble materials, %, ≤
0.25
/
NH4Cl, %, ≤
0.5
0.03 - 0.8
(NH4)2SO4, %, ≤
1.0
0.16 - 0.8
pH (25°C, 10% solution)
4.5 - 7.0
4.5 - 7.0
Density, g/mL, 25°C, approx
1.01
1.02
Color*, Gardner, ≤
/
5
Color*, %T at 420 nm, ≥
50
58
Color*, Klett, 5% solution, ≤
35
/
1,4-Dioxane, ppm, ≤
30
30
*: select one from three.
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), Unsulfated materials
GB/T 11989 Anionic surface active agents - Determination of soluble matter content in light petroleum
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(3), Ethanol insoluble materials
GB/T 13173 Surface active agents - Detergents - Testing methods
(4), NH4Cl
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate, as ammonium chloride calculated.
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(5), (NH4)2SO4
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate, as ammonium sulfate calculated.
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(6), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(7), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
(8), Color (Gardner)
GB/T 22295 Standard test method for color of transparent liquids (Gardner Color Scale)
ISO 4630 Clear liquids -- Estimation of colour by the Gardner colour scale
(9), Color (%T at 420 nm)
Measure by spectrophotometer.
(10), Color (Klett)
GB/T 8447 Industrial linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, Appendix A
(11), 1,4-Dioxane
GB/T 26388 Determination of dioxane residues in surfactants - Gas chromatographic method
ISO 17280 Surface active agents -- Determination of 1,4-dioxan residues in surfactants obtained from epoxyethane by gas chromatography
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Used in cosmetics, should be test for harmful substances; or furtherly test for microorganisms.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications
Use as cleansing agent.
Use as emulsifying agent, dispersing agent.
Use as foam stabilizing agent, foaming agent.
Use as solubilizing agent.
2. Personal care products
Cleansing agent, foaming agent in personal care products.
For example, main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoo, hand sanitizer and other products.
Can provides good viscosity, foam and skin compatibility.
The products that contact with the skin for a long time, not recommended to use.
Test for skin irritation of surfactant, see also: United States Patent 6,723,688 Cleanser that is gentle to human skin, etc.
(1)Shampoo
(1a)Styling shampoo (US 6,297,203)
Ammonium laureth sulfate    9.5
Monosodium phosphate    0.1
Fragrance    1.0
Ammonium lauryl sulfate    1.0
Disodium phosphate    0.2
Cetyl alcohol    0.07
Lauroamphoacetate    7.5
Dimethicone    0.25
Stearyl alcohol    0.03
Glycol distearate    2.0
Cocomonoethanol amide    0.6
Polyquaternium-16    2.0
PEG-150 pentaerythrityl tetrastearate    0.1
DMDM hydantoin    0.2
Polyquaternium-10    0.3
Water    qs 100
(1b)Spray dispensed shampoo (US 5,346,639)
Lauramide DEA (85%)    1.5
Cocamide DEA (85%)    1.5
Fragrance    0.35
Ammonium laureth sulfate (42%)    12.0
Ammonium lauryl sulfate (42%)    12.0
Kathon CG    0.04
Cocamidopropyl betaine (50%)    2.0
Water    qs 100
3. Household detergents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in laundry detergent, hard surface detergent (for example: glass detergent) and other household products.
Particularly, suitable for the preparation of high bubble and light-duty detergents.
4. Industrial cleaning agents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in car cleaning products, metal cleaning products and other industrial cleaning products.
Particularly, suitable for the preparation of high bubble detergents, for example:car cleaning agents.
5. Emulsion polymerization
Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization.
Usually used in vinyl chloride, styrene-butadiene emulsion polymerization; also used in the manufacture of styrene acrylic acid, acrylic acid, vinyl acetate homopolymer/copolymer emulsion.
6. Textile, leather
Use as emulsifier, foaming agent, cleansing agent, solubilizing agent.
7. Pets
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoos and other pet products.
Product members
Ammonium Laureth-2 Sulfate;
Ammonium Laureth-3 Sulfate;
Ammonium Laureth-4 Sulfate;
Ammonium Laureth-7 Sulfate;
Ammonium Laureth-12 Sulfate;
Manufacturers
 
References
[1]: ChemIDplus. Ammonium laureth sulfate, 32612-48-9
Update: 20131018(1); 20161201(2);