Ammonium nonoxynol-4 sulfate
Time: 2012-09-27 17:25:34
Ammonium nonoxynol-4 sulfate
Synonyms
PEG-4 nonyl phenyl ether sulfate, ammonium salt;
Polyethylene glycol (4) nonyl phenyl ether sulfate, ammonium salt;
Polyoxyethylene (4) nonyl phenyl ether sulfate, ammonium salt;
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-sulfo-omega-(nonylphenoxy)-, ammonium salt (EO=4);
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Phenol Polyether Sulfate
>> Phenol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
>> Linear Alkylphenol Polyoxyethylene Ether Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN9051-57-4; 31691-97-1
EINECSN/A
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: C23H43NO8S; C23H40O8S.H3N
Molecular Weight: 493.65
Structure
 
Properties
Appearance    (1), paste; (2), transparent liquid; (3), solid.
Solubility    soluble in water.
Stability    stable in weak acid and hard water; unstable in strong acid, hydrolyzed; unstable in alkali, can release ammonia.
Risk    Liquid (or paste) form: irritation, irritation to skin, eye.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Animal Toxicity
Table 1 Animal toxicity values
rat oral LD50
8000mg/kg[1]
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent cleansing, foaming, emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, solubilizing, foam stabilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water.
Note    (1), 1,4-dioxane generated during preparation: probable carcinogen. However, can be acceptable when concentration of 1,4-dioxane is less than 30ppm or less.
Synthesis
Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.
Polyoxyethylene nonyl phenyl ether and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then ammonia water neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and polyethers or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Actives, %, ≥
55.0 - 70.0
25.0 - 35.0
pH (25°C, 5% solution)
4.5 - 7.0
4.5 - 7.0
Density, g/mL, 25°C, approx
1.05
1.05
1,4-Dioxane, ppm, ≤
30
30
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(3), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
(4), 1,4-Dioxane
GB/T 26388 Determination of dioxane residues in surfactants - Gas chromatographic method
ISO 17280 Surface active agents -- Determination of 1,4-dioxan residues in surfactants obtained from epoxyethane by gas chromatography
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
High-enriched type
Low-enriched type
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Used in cosmetics, should be test for harmful substances; or furtherly test for microorganisms.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications
Use as cleansing agent.
Use as emulsifying agent, dispersing agent.
Use as foam stabilizing agent, foaming agent.
Use as solubilizing agent.
2. Industrial cleaning agents
Use as cleansing agent, foaming agent.
3. Emulsion polymerization
Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization. Can improve the stability of the emulsion system. For example, can be applied to the emulsion polymerization of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer.
4. Personal care products
Use as cleansing agent. Can be used in personal care products, but not recommended.
Manufacturers
 
References
[1]: ChemIDplus. Ammonium nonoxynol-4 sulfate, 9051-57-4
Update: 20131021(1); 20170123(2);