Oleic Acid
Time: 2012-10-02 16:22:50
Oleic Acid
(Z)-9-octadecenoic acid;
9-Octadecenoic acid, (9Z)-;
Anionic Surfactant
>> Carboxylate
>> Chain Carboxylate
>> Alkenyl Carboxylate
>> Linear Alkenyl Carboxylate
Chemical Numbering System
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: C18H34O2
Molecular Weight: 282.46
Appearance    (1), colorless liquid (pure substance); (2), pale yellow to deep red liquid (commercially available), after condensation: white or slightly yellow paste.
Odor    odor of animal fats or vegetable oils.
Solubility    insoluble in water. soluble in ethanol, ether, chloroform, toluene.
Physical - chemical properties
Melting point, °C
Stability    stable. Easily oxidized.
Risk    Liquid form: flammable material; irritation, irritation to skin, eye, respiratory system. Harmful products of combustion are CO, CO2 and so on. Contact with strong oxidants, can cause to burn.
GHS (Rev.7) label:  
Animal Toxicity
Table 1 Animal toxicity values
rat oral LD50
rat intravenous LD50
monkey intravenous LD
> 0.04mL/kg[2]
mouse intraperitoneal LD50
mouse intravenous LD50
mouse oral LD50
rabbit intravenous LD50
> 55mg/kg[2]
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent lubricating, cleansing, emulsifying, dispersing, solubilizing, antirust abilities. Nonresistant to hard water. Typical ingredient in soap.
(1), The crude fatty acids are obtained by saponifying hydrolysis reaction of animal fats or vegetable oils.
(2), Crude fatty acids are washed, distilled and decolored, then obtain finished oleic acid. At the same time, obtain by-product glycerin.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Physical and chemical indexes
Actives, %, ≥
C18:1 oleic acid, %, ≥
Moisture, %, ≤
Saponification value(as KOH), mg/g
185 - 205
Iodine value(as I2), g/100g
80 - 102
Freezing point, °C, ≤
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 13173 Surface active agents - Detergents - Testing methods
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), C18:1 oleic acid
GB/T 9104 Test methods for industrial stearic acids
(3), Moisture
GB/T 260 Test method for water in petroleum products – Distillation method
ISO 3733 Petroleum products and bituminous materials -- Determination of water -- Distillation method
(4), Saponification value
GB/T 9104 Test methods for industrial stearic acids
(5), Iodine value
GB/T 9104 Test methods for industrial stearic acids
(6), Freezing point
GB/T 618 Chemical reagent -- General method for the determination of crystallizing point
ISO 6353-1 Reagents for chemical analysis -- Part 1: General test methods
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Hazardous substances indexes
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
As, mg/Kg, ≤
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Product standards
(1), Chinese standards
(1a), QB/T 2153 Industrial oleic acid
4. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Used in cosmetics, should be test for harmful substances; or furtherly test for microorganisms.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications
Use as lubricant.
Use as cleansing agent.
Use as emulsifying agent, dispersing agent.
2. Household detergents
Use as cleansing agent.
3. Personal care products
Emollient, emulsifying agent in personal care products.
4. Machinery industry
Lubricant in metal processing, machinery.
Lubricant, rust inhibitor in metalworking fluid. Often used as triethanolamine or diethanolamine salt.
5. Organic synthesis
Widely used in preparation of oleic acid esters. Oleic acid esters used in personal care products, food, medicine, etc.
Widely used in preparation of oleic acid salts. Oleic acid salts used in personal care products, household cleaning products, fabricated metal products, plastic products, etc.
6. Pets
Use as cleansing agent, emulsifying agent.
7. Food
Use as food additive (perfume, FEMA No. 2815).
8. Industrial cleaning
Cleansing agent in industrial cleaning products. Often used as triethanolamine or diethanolamine salt.
[1]: HSDB. 112-80-1, Oleic acid
[2]: ChemIDplus. 112-80-1, Oleic acid
Update: 20131102(1); 20180110(2);