Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate
Time: 2012-09-07 15:51:14

Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate

Synonyms

Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate;

Dodecyl Sulfate Ammonium Salt;

Sulfuric acid, monododecyl ester, ammonium salt (1:1);

Ammonium Lauryl Sulphate;

ALS;

ASA;

SLSA;

Category

Anionic Surfactant

> Sulfate

>> Chain Alcohol Sulfate

>>> Alkanol Sulfate

>>>> Linear Alkanol Sulfate

Chemical Numbering System

CASRN: 2235-54-3

EINECS: 218-793-9

Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight

Molecular Formula: C12H29NO4S; C12H26O4S.H3N

Molecular Weight: 283.43

Structure

Properties

Appearance    (1), white to light yellow gelatinous colloid; (2), white to light yellow liquid; (3), solid.

Odor    faint characteristic odor.

Solubility    soluble in water.

Hygroscopicity    Solid ammonium dodecyl sulfate: hygroscopic.

Physical - chemical properties

Surface tension, mN/m, 25°C

38 (100mg/L)[1]

Flash point, °C

> 93

Stability    pH: 4~7, stable. pH < 4: hydrolyzed, reduced to alcohol. pH > 7: release ammonia. Break down when heated to high temperature for a long time. Stable in hard water.

Risk    Colloid or liquid form: irritation, moderate irritation to skin, eye. Compared with sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate has lower toxicity and irritation.

GHS (Rev.7) label: 

Animal toxicity

Table 1 Animal toxicity values

Rat oral LD50

4700mg/kg[2]

Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.

Biodegradability    biodegradable.

Characteristics    excellent foaming, cleansing, emulsifying, wetting, permeating, dispersing, solubilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water. Particularly suitable for preparation of a low pH value (neutral to weakly acidic) products.

Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALSA) and ammonium laureth sulfate (AESA) complexes can produce excellent synergies, such as: rich foam, very mild, excellent thickening properties.

Note    (1), Avoid using in children products that can be direct prolonged contact with the skin, such as: skin care products.

(2), Use in products that can be long-term direct contact with the skin, such as: skin care products, usage should not exceed 1%[2].

Synthesis

Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.

Generally, dodecyl alcohol and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then ammonia water neutralizes, finally obtain product.

US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and alcohols or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.

Quality Standards & Test Methods

1, Physical and chemical indexes

Item

Physical and chemical indexes

68 type

28 type

25 type

Actives, %, ≥

66-70

27-29

24-26

Unsulfated materials, %, ≤

4.0

1.5

1.5

(NH4)2SO4, %, ≤

2.0

1.0

1.0

NH4Cl, %, ≤

0.5

0.3

0.3

pH (25°C, 10% solution)

5.5-7.0

5.5-7.0

5.5-7.0

Color Hazen (5% solution), ≤

30

30

30

Fe, mg/Kg, ≤

5

5

5

Density, g/mL, approx.

1.0

1.0

1.0

Test Methods

(1), Actives

GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure

ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure

(2), Unsulfated materials

GB/T 11989 Anionic surface active agents - Determination of soluble matter content in light petroleum

ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis

(3), (NH4)2SO4

GB/T 6366 Surface active agents - Determination of mineral sulfate content - Titrimetric method

ISO 6844 Surface active agents -- Determination of mineral sulfate content -- Titrimetric method

ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis

(4), NH4Cl

GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium chloride calculated.

ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis

(5), pH

GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method

ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method

(6), Color (Hazen)

GB/T 3143 Color determination method of liquid chemicals(Hazen unit;Platinum-cobalt scale)

ISO 2211 Liquid chemical products -- Measurement of colour in Hazen units (platinum-cobalt scale)

(7), Fe content

GB/T 3049 Chemical products for industrial use - General method for determination of iron content – 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method

ISO 6685 Chemical products for industrial use -- General method for determination of iron content -- 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method

(8), Density

GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products

ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C

2, Hazardous substances indexes

Item

Hazardous substances indexes

68 type

28 type

25 type

Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤

20

20

20

As, mg/Kg, ≤

3

3

3

Test Methods

(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)

Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)

GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals

(2), As

Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)

GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic

3, Standards

(1), Chinese standards

QB/T 2573 Ammonium lauryl sulfate

4, Further explanation

(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.

Major Uses

1, Typical applications

Use as foaming agent.

Use as cleansing agent.

Use as emulsifying agent, dispersing agent.

Use as wetting agent.

2, Personal care products

Cleansing agent, foaming agent in personal care products.

For example, main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoo, hand sanitizer and other products.

(1), Shampoo

(1a), Shampoo containing silicone (US 5,114,706)

  Formula:

Cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)    25

Ammonium lauryl sulfate (30%)    35

Ammonium laureth sulfate (30%)*    20 (*: be also ammonium lauryl sulfate in the patent)

Cocamide DEA    2

Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride    1

Cetyl/stearyl alcohol    2

Isopropyl myristate    2

Non-volatile silicone    3

NaOH (50%)    0.25

Soft water    9.15

Color, fragrance, preservative    q.s.

(1b), Shampoo containing silicone (US 5,456,863)

  Formula:

Dimethyl Stearamidopropyl[(2-Pyrrolidonyl)methyl]ammonium Chloride    0.375

Glycerin    3.0

Ammonium Xylene Sulfonate (40%)    0.88

NaOH (50%)    0.22

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate    3.333

Citric Acid    0.43

Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (40%)    4.0

Dimethicone    4.125

Crosslinked MVE/VA Copolymer    0.4

Fragrance    0.4

Cocamide DEA    3.0

Dye    0.176

Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (40%)    10.5

Preservative    0.15

Deionized Water    q.s.

*    *    *    *    *    *

Applications in hair cleaning and care products, further see: United States Patent 4,547,364 Hair treatment product, United States Patent 4,529,588 Hair conditioning shampoo, etc.

(2), Bath lotion

(2a), Bath lotion (US 4,603,005)

  Transparent formula:

Ammonium lauryl sulfate/ammonium lauryl ether sulfate    35

Citric acid    1

alpha Olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer (sodium cut)    15

Formalin preservative    0.25

Sodium chloride    1.5

Fragrance and color    trace

Deionized water    q.s.

  Opaque formula:

Ammonium lauryl sulfate/ammonium lauryl ether sulfate    35

Citric acid    1

alpha Olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer (ammonium cut)    15

Formalin preservative    0.25

Sodium chloride    1.5

Fragrance and color    trace

Deionized water    q.s.

This patent applies in 1986, so use formaldehyde (formalin) as a preservative.

Features: main function of alpha olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer can reduce the irritation of anionic surfactants.

(3), Liquid soap

(3a), liquid antibacterial soap (US 6,696,397)

Formula:

SD 40 alcohol    70

Ammonium lauryl sulfate    15

Disodium EDTA    0.2

Copolymer 940    0.02

Lapinite    0.01

Triethanolamine    0.01

De-ionized water    To 100

3, Household detergents

Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in laundry detergent and other household products, such as: wool products cleaning agent.

4, Industrial cleaning agents

Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent, such as: car cleaning agents.

5, Emulsion polymerization

Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization. For example, polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymerization.

6, Pets

Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoos and other pet products.

7, Textile, leather

Use as emulsifier, foaming agent, cleansing agent, wetting agent, antistatic agent, solubilizing agent.

*    *    *    *    *    *

More applications for ammonium lauryl sulfate, further see: United States Patent 8,043,525 Wet etching solution, United States Patent 7,208,144 Stabilized dispersion of behenyl alcohol, etc.

Manufacturers

 

References

[1]: OECD. Category of Alkyl sulfates, Alkane Sulfonates and α-Olefin Sulfonates. SIDS Initial Assessment Report for SIAM 25. 2007.

[2]: http://www.nicnas.gov.au. NICNAS Existing Chemicals Information Sheet: Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate,2003

[3]: HSDB. Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, 2235-54-3

Update: 20131018(1); 20160726(2);