Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate
Time: 2012-09-07 15:51:14
Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate
Synonyms
Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate;
Dodecyl Sulfate Ammonium Salt;
Sulfuric acid, monododecyl ester, ammonium salt (1:1);
Ammonium Lauryl Sulphate;
ALS;
ASA;
SLSA;
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Chain Alcohol Sulfate
>> Alkanol Sulfate
>> Linear Alkanol Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN: 2235-54-3
EINECS: 218-793-9
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: C12H29NO4S;C12H26O4S.H3N (SciFinder Hill Rules)
Molecular Weight: 283.43
Structure
Properties
Appearance    (1), white to light yellow gelatinous colloid; (2), white to light yellow liquid; (3), solid.
Odor    faint characteristic odor.
Solubility    soluble in water.
Hygroscopicity    Solid ammonium dodecyl sulfate: hygroscopic.
Physical - chemical properties
Surface tension, mN/m, 25°C
38 (100mg/L)[1]
Flash point, °C
> 93
Stability    pH: 4~7, stable. pH < 4: hydrolyzed, reduced to alcohol. pH > 7: release ammonia. Break down when heated to high temperature for a long time. Stable in hard water.
Risk    Colloid or liquid form: irritation, moderate irritation to skin, eye. Compared with sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate has lower toxicity and irritation.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Animal toxicity
Table 1 Animal toxicity values
Rat oral LD50
4700mg/kg[2]
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent foaming, cleansing, emulsifying, wetting, permeating, dispersing, solubilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water. Particularly suitable for preparation of a low pH value (neutral to weakly acidic) products.
Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALSA) and ammonium laureth sulfate (AESA) complexes can produce excellent synergies, such as: rich foam, very mild, excellent thickening properties.
Note    (1), Avoid using in children products that can be direct prolonged contact with the skin, such as: skin care products.
(2), Use in products that can be long-term direct contact with the skin, such as: skin care products, usage should not exceed 1%[2].
Synthesis
Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.
Generally, dodecyl alcohol and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then ammonia water neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and alcohols or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
68 type
28 type
25 type
Actives, %, ≥
66-70
27-29
24-26
Unsulfated materials, %, ≤
4.0
1.5
1.5
(NH4)2SO4, %, ≤
2.0
1.0
1.0
NH4Cl, %, ≤
0.5
0.3
0.3
pH (25°C, 10% solution)
5.5-7.0
5.5-7.0
5.5-7.0
Color Hazen (5% solution), ≤
30
30
30
Fe, mg/Kg, ≤
5
5
5
Density, g/mL, approx.
1.0
1.0
1.0
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), Unsulfated materials
GB/T 11989 Anionic surface active agents - Determination of soluble matter content in light petroleum
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(3), (NH4)2SO4
GB/T 6366 Surface active agents - Determination of mineral sulfate content - Titrimetric method
ISO 6844 Surface active agents -- Determination of mineral sulfate content -- Titrimetric method
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(4), NH4Cl
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium chloride calculated.
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(5), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(6), Color (Hazen)
GB/T 3143 Color determination method of liquid chemicals(Hazen unit;Platinum-cobalt scale)
ISO 2211 Liquid chemical products -- Measurement of colour in Hazen units (platinum-cobalt scale)
(7), Fe content
GB/T 3049 Chemical products for industrial use - General method for determination of iron content – 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method
ISO 6685 Chemical products for industrial use -- General method for determination of iron content -- 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method
(8), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
68 type
28 type
25 type
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Standards
(1), Chinese standards
QB/T 2573 Ammonium lauryl sulfate
4. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
Major Uses
1. Personal care products
Cleansing agent, foaming agent in personal care products.
For example, main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoo, hand sanitizer and other products.
(1), Shampoo
(1a), Shampoo containing silicone (US 5,114,706)
  Formula:
Cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)    25
Ammonium lauryl sulfate (30%)    35
Ammonium laureth sulfate (30%)*    20 (*: be also ammonium lauryl sulfate in the patent)
Cocamide DEA    2
Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride    1
Cetyl/stearyl alcohol    2
Isopropyl myristate    2
Non-volatile silicone    3
NaOH (50%)    0.25
Soft water    9.15
Color, fragrance, preservative    q.s.
(1b), Shampoo containing silicone (US 5,456,863)
  Formula:
Dimethyl Stearamidopropyl[(2-Pyrrolidonyl)methyl]ammonium Chloride    0.375
Glycerin    3.0
Ammonium Xylene Sulfonate (40%)    0.88
NaOH (50%)    0.22
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate    3.333
Citric Acid    0.43
Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (40%)    4.0
Dimethicone    4.125
Crosslinked MVE/VA Copolymer    0.4
Fragrance    0.4
Cocamide DEA    3.0
Dye    0.176
Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (40%)    10.5
Preservative    0.15
Deionized Water    q.s.
*    *    *    *    *    *
Applications in hair cleaning and care products, further see: United States Patent 4,547,364 Hair treatment product, United States Patent 4,529,588 Hair conditioning shampoo, etc.
(2), Bath lotion
(2a), Bath lotion (US 4,603,005)
  Transparent formula:
Ammonium lauryl sulfate/ammonium lauryl ether sulfate    35
Citric acid    1
alpha Olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer (sodium cut)    15
Formalin preservative    0.25
Sodium chloride    1.5
Fragrance and color    trace
Deionized water    q.s.
  Opaque formula:
Ammonium lauryl sulfate/ammonium lauryl ether sulfate    35
Citric acid    1
alpha Olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer (ammonium cut)    15
Formalin preservative    0.25
Sodium chloride    1.5
Fragrance and color    trace
Deionized water    q.s.
This patent applies in 1986, so use formaldehyde (formalin) as a preservative.
Features: main function of alpha olefin/maleic anhydride terpolymer can reduce the irritation of anionic surfactants.
(3), Liquid soap
(3a), liquid antibacterial soap (US 6,696,397)
Formula:
SD 40 alcohol    70
Ammonium lauryl sulfate    15
Disodium EDTA    0.2
Copolymer 940    0.02
Lapinite    0.01
Triethanolamine    0.01
De-ionized water    To 100
2. Household detergents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in laundry detergent and other household products, such as: wool products cleaning agent.
3. Industrial cleaning agents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent, such as: car cleaning agents.
4. Emulsion polymerization
Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization. For example, polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymerization.
5. Pets
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoos and other pet products.
6. Textile, leather
Use as emulsifier, foaming agent, cleansing agent, wetting agent, antistatic agent, solubilizing agent.
*    *    *    *    *    *
More applications for ammonium lauryl sulfate, further see: United States Patent 8,043,525 Wet etching solution, United States Patent 7,208,144 Stabilized dispersion of behenyl alcohol, etc.
Manufacturers
 
References
[1]: OECD. Category of Alkyl sulfates, Alkane Sulfonates and α-Olefin Sulfonates. SIDS Initial Assessment Report for SIAM 25. 2007.
[2]: http://www.nicnas.gov.au. NICNAS Existing Chemicals Information Sheet: Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate,2003
[3]: HSDB. Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, 2235-54-3
Update: 20131018(1); 20160726(2);