Sulfuric Acid, Mono-C12-16-alkyl Esters, Ammonium Salts
Time: 2012-09-07 15:51:59
Sulfuric Acid, Mono-C12-16-alkyl Esters, Ammonium Salts
Synonyms
C12-C16 Alkyl alcohol sulfuric acid, ammonium salt;
Ammonium C12-16 alkyl sulfate;
Category
Anionic Surfactant
>> Sulfate
>> Chain Alcohol Sulfate
>> Alkanol Sulfate
>> Linear Alkanol Sulfate
Chemical Numbering System
CASRN: 90583-12-3
EINECS: 292-210-6
Molecular Formula & Molecular Weight
Molecular Formula: C12H29NO4S - C16H37NO4S; C12H26O4S.H3N - C16H34O4S.H3N(SciFinder Hill Rules)
Molecular Weight: 283.43 - 339.53
Structure
R: C12-16.
Properties
Appearance    (1), white to light yellow gelatinous colloid; (2), white to light yellow liquid; (3), solid.
Odor    faint characteristic odor.
Solubility    soluble in water.
Hygroscopicity    Solid ammonium C12-16 alkyl sulfate: hygroscopic.
Physical - chemical properties
Flash point, °C
> 93
Stability    pH: 4~7, stable. pH < 4: hydrolyzed, reduced to alcohol. pH > 7: release ammonia. Break down when heated to high temperature for a long time. Stable in hard water.
Risk    Colloid or liquid form: irritation, moderate irritation to skin, eye. Compared with sodium C12-16 alkyl sulfate, ammonium C12-16 alkyl sulfate has lower toxicity and irritation.
GHS (Rev.6) label:
Ecology    may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability    biodegradable.
Characteristics    excellent foaming, cleansing, emulsifying, wetting, permeating, dispersing, solubilizing abilities. Resistant to hard water. Particularly suitable for preparation of a low pH value (neutral to weakly acidic) products.
Ammonium C12-16 alkyl sulfate and ammonium C12-16 pareth sulfate complexes can produce excellent synergies, such as: rich foam, very mild, excellent thickening properties.
Note    (1), Avoid using in children products that can be direct prolonged contact with the skin, such as: skin care products.
Synthesis
Currently, sulfated reaction through continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfates.
Generally, C12-16 alkyl alcohol and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then ammonia water neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and alcohols or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Quality Standards & Test Methods
1. Physical and chemical indexes
Item
Physical and chemical indexes
68 type
28 type
25 type
Actives, %, ≥
66-70
27-29
24-26
Unsulfated materials, %, ≤
4.0
1.5
1.5
(NH4)2SO4, %, ≤
2.0
1.0
1.0
NH4Cl, %, ≤
0.5
0.3
0.3
pH (25°C, 10% solution)
5.5-7.0
5.5-7.0
5.5-7.0
Color Hazen (5% solution), ≤
30
30
30
Fe, mg/Kg, ≤
5
5
5
Density, g/mL, approx.
1.0
1.0
1.0
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), Unsulfated materials
GB/T 11989 Anionic surface active agents - Determination of soluble matter content in light petroleum
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(3), (NH4)2SO4
GB/T 6366 Surface active agents - Determination of mineral sulfate content - Titrimetric method
ISO 6844 Surface active agents -- Determination of mineral sulfate content -- Titrimetric method
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(4), NH4Cl
GB/T 15963 Sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium chloride calculated.
ISO 894 Surface active agents -- Technical sodium primary alkylsulphates -- Methods of analysis
(5), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
(6), Color (Hazen)
GB/T 3143 Color determination method of liquid chemicals(Hazen unit;Platinum-cobalt scale)
ISO 2211 Liquid chemical products -- Measurement of colour in Hazen units (platinum-cobalt scale)
(7), Fe content
GB/T 3049 Chemical products for industrial use - General method for determination of iron content – 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method
ISO 6685 Chemical products for industrial use -- General method for determination of iron content -- 1,10-Phenanthroline spectrophotometric method
(8), Density
GB/T 4472 Determination of density and relative density for chemical products
ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use -- Determination of density at 20 degrees C
2. Hazardous substances indexes
Item
Hazardous substances indexes
68 type
28 type
25 type
Heavy metals (as Pb), mg/Kg, ≤
20
20
20
As, mg/Kg, ≤
3
3
3
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3. Further explanation
(a), On physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Generally, ammonium C12-16 alkyl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate replace to use each other.
Major Uses
1. Personal care products
Cleansing agent, foaming agent in personal care products.
For example, main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoo, hand sanitizer and other products.
2. Household detergents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in laundry detergent and other household products, such as: wool products cleaning agent.
3. Industrial cleaning agents
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent, such as: car cleaning agents.
4. Emulsion polymerization
Emulsifier, particle size controlling agent in emulsion polymerization. For example, polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymerization.
5. Pets
Main ingredient or auxiliary ingredient for cleansing agent, foaming agent in shampoos and other pet products.
6. Textile, leather
Use as emulsifier, foaming agent, cleansing agent, wetting agent, antistatic agent, solubilizing agent.
Manufacturers
 
Update: 20131018(1); 20160727(2);